Governmental and Nonprofit Financial Management

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  2. Financial Management | National Council of Nonprofits
  3. 3 Major Differences Between Government and Nonprofit Accounting
  4. 3 Big Differences between NPO and Government Accounting

These courses are offered by the Center but, as noted above, equivalent coursework at other universities on occasion may substitute for some of these courses, subject to faculty approval. Students complete at least 18 credit hours of foundation coursework in the core areas, at least 9 hours of Advanced Topics, and at least 6 hours of coursework in Measurement and Analysis Tools components.

Students should complete foundation courses before enrolling in Advanced Topics classes. Before enrolling in the two-course sequence of Capstone Seminars, however, they must have completed all foundation courses and passed the qualifying examination. Advanced Topics Courses examine specialized areas. Capstone Seminars provide the opportunity to develop ideas that may form the foundation for the dissertation. They represent the most advanced formal coursework at the Center. The seminars are to be taken in sequence: Capstone A followed by Capstone B.

They need not be taken in contiguous semesters. Capstone A is a research seminar that offers students the opportunity to develop ideas for a paper that may support a dissertation topic. Capstone B is a writing-intensive seminar in which students refine rough drafts developed in Capstone A. The final paper for Capstone B should be of publishable quality in a refereed journal.

Admission to the capstone seminar sequence is contingent upon successful completion of all foundation coursework and the qualifying examination. Students taking PAPA , Public Administration and Policy Inquiry, or substitute research methods courses approved by the faculty, will be expected to use qualitative and quantitative inquiry and computing skills. If they have not already completed this coursework elsewhere, students are required to complete a graduate-level, intermediate statistics course, which covers techniques through multiple regression.

Students complete this work during their CPAP doctoral studies and may not transfer work completed prior to their enrollment in the Ph. This work should permit the student to delve more deeply into a subject-matter field or an area of theory or research methodology. Faculty advisors will counsel students on the need to take additional credit study or noncredit training in data collection or analysis tools needed for their anticipated dissertation projects as part of the Research Concentration requirement.

For example, the nine credit hours may include special study in a potential dissertation research methodology, an independent study on a preliminary review of the literature base for the dissertation, some background coursework, or some form of applied field work. Students work with a member of the faculty to determine the activities for the nine credit hours. However, the Concentration also may be used to pursue field experiences or special study independent of the dissertation topic. The Research Concentration may be completed before or after the qualifying exam.

Students are encouraged to discuss with their advisors the appropriate time to complete the nine hours of research concentration work and the three credit concentration lecture. Concentration Lecture: A lecture is prepared and presented by students after completing the nine credit hours of research concentration work.

This lecture three credit hours of PAPA integrates the Concentration work and must be presented before the faculty advisor and at least six other students or guests, including faculty. This lecture is given before the dissertation prospectus defense. Students are responsible for assembling the audience for the lecture. THE Ph. For all Ph. The Qualifying Exam is designed to assess student mastery of the material covered in the six Foundation courses.

Students are eligible to take the exam as soon as they have accumulated at least 21 credit hours of CPA-specific course work, which must include the 18 credit hours of foundation courses plus PAPA or its designated alternative. Students must take the exam no later than after the completion of 30 credit hours, which must include all required foundation courses plus PAPA or its designated alternative. The exam will be offered in the fall and spring semesters, and students may choose to register for the qualifying exam as soon as they meet the minimum credit hour and course threshold.

The qualifying examination has two parts — written and oral — but will be considered as a whole. Written: Essay questions will be based solely on the content of the foundation coursework that is, no specific themes and related departure readings will be circulated. The written exam will consist of one broad question for each foundation area.

Students must demonstrate mastery of the foundational material by composing coherent essays responding to the questions presented in their three selected fields. Mastery is defined according to the following criteria: 1. Completeness of response to the question 2. Accuracy of response to the question 3.

Grounding in the relevant scholarship 4. Synthesis 5. Critical analysis 6. Writing quality For each foundation area, the faculty will prepare a periodically updated list of relevant published scholarship, as well as providing students access to course syllabi both past and present to ensure that students have a rich and relatively standardized resource in each core area on which to draw to prepare for the exam.

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Faculty will set a minimum level of competence i. Students must pass all three essays in order to be considered ready to defend the essays in the oral portion of the exam. Students failing to reach this threshold must write new essays during the next scheduled qualifying exam period, but only for the foundation area s not meeting the threshold. Students may not change foundation areas between attempts to pass the written portion of the exam. Failure to successfully pass the written 16 exam in all three areas after a second attempt at one or more essays will constitute a failure of the qualifying exam.

Each of the three essays will be considered in sequence, and students will be expected to sustain and defend their arguments in each essay in response to questions. Students successfully completing this coursework may move on to the dissertation milestones, including the concentration lecture, prospectus defense, dissertation, and dissertation defense. Any student whose oral qualifying exam defense is considered unsatisfactory will be given one opportunity to complete an alternative project in order to pass the qualifying exam.

Failure to successfully complete this project will constitute failure of the qualifying exam. All students will receive written feedback on their performance in the exam after each cycle in which they participate. Overview of Qualifying Exam Process: 1. Students will complete foundation courses in all five core areas, and select three of the five core areas to be tested in the written and oral portions of the examination. The examination will be offered twice a year in the fall and spring semesters. The written portion of the exam will consist of three take home essays see below and students will have 8 hours to complete each one.

The essays will be written on a Monday, Wednesday, and Friday schedule with one day scheduled for each core area. The written portion of the examination will be scheduled approximately within the first three weeks of the semester followed by the oral component of the examination approximately two weeks after the last written one. The oral portion of the exam will be scheduled within the first five weeks of the fall and spring semesters. Prior to the administration of the written examination, each core area committee will develop one question in their respective area.

Students will be presented with this question on the day that each respective written exam is administered. On each of the written exam days, a student will have an 8-hour period am to pm, with an hour allowed for lunch in which to respond to the question in an essay no more than ten pages in length, double-spaced.

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Each student will have an oral exam committee consisting of the six readers of their written essays. The committee will ask questions that build from the questions the student answered in the written portion of the exam. The oral portion of the exam will last for approximately an hour.

For students who fail the examination, the examining committee will determine the appropriate form of a re-take during the next scheduled examination period. In most instances this likely will involve a decision on whether a student should re-take one, two, or three of the examination core areas.

Failure to start and complete the required re-take by the next scheduled examination will constitute a second failure of the examination. The dissertation is expected to make an original contribution to knowledge of the field. The student is eligible to receive the Ph. As a result of their course work and advising, students should have identified and discussed a dissertation advisory relationship with an appropriate faculty member by the time they begin the Capstone seminars.

Dissertation Committee: After the student completes the Qualifying Examination and before they begin Capstone A, he or she formally establishes a dissertation committee. The first step in this process is to ask a member of the Center's core faculty to chair this committee. The next step is to constitute the dissertation committee, which consists of at least four members including the chair. Criteria for Committee: Ordinarily, a dissertation committee is comprised of four members, at least three of whom shall be members of the CPAP core faculty.

The chair or co-chair must be a member of the core faculty see Section III. A fourth or fifth committee member, if not a member of the Virginia Tech full-time faculty, must be approved by the committee chair and by the Graduate School. Dissertation committees are subject to the approval of the Graduate School.

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Therefore, if two members from other institutions serve on a dissertation committee, a fifth member must be added from the Virginia Tech faculty. Under no circumstances may more than two 18 colleagues from other universities serve on a dissertation committee. This document essentially is a research design setting forth the program of research that the student proposes to follow in writing his or her dissertation. The prospectus should address the topic or question to be assayed in the planned dissertation; the scholarly and public affairs significance of the proposed research; the present state of knowledge on the topic or question, and the sources that will shape the work; the research design including the research strategy, methodology, and methods to be employed; an outline of proposed chapters; and a timeline for completing the work.

When the student and the chair agree that the prospectus is ready, arrangements will be made for the student to defend it before the dissertation committee. When the prospectus has been successfully defended, the student will proceed to write the dissertation itself. No student may advance to the Dissertation Defense until all other requirements have been completed successfully and until the chair and at least two out of three or three out of four of five other members of the dissertation committee agree that the dissertation is ready to be defended.

The dissertation defense focuses on the dissertation research project but is not limited to it. Candidates are expected to answer questions about the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of the dissertation and its contribution to new knowledge in the field. The dissertation defense must be scheduled no sooner than six weeks after a draft, approved by the chair, has been distributed to the members of the committee.

Members of the dissertation committee must be present for the defense. General Information about Advising: The general orientation of the advising activities at both locations is directed not only toward counseling students on the choice of course work, but also toward helping them develop a clear sense of intellectual direction and a framework for thinking about their dissertation projects. The systems at the two locations 19 vary only in order to meet the distinctive requirements of the type of student community that exists at each location.

Assignment of Advisors: The CPAP chair or associate chair will assign a member of the core faculty to each student upon his or her arrival on campus. Students may change their advisors at any time with the approval of the CPAP chair and the consent of the new advisors. After a dissertation chair has been selected, however, this option should be exercised prudently and then in accordance with Graduate School procedures. The student may also request a change in the membership of the dissertation committee, subject to the approval of the committee chair and the CPAP chair and in accordance with Graduate School procedures.

This option should be exercised with increasing caution as work on the dissertation progresses.

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Transfer of Credit and Plan of Study Development: An advising session concerning transfer credit and program of study development is offered at least once a year, usually at the beginning of the fall term. Entering students should attend the first session offered after they have entered the Ph. This document should be looked upon as though it were a contract specifying the requirements the student must meet as he or she moves through the program. Later adjustments to the Plan of Study are made following consultation between the student and his or her faculty advisor.

In implementing their Plans of Study, students must contact their advisors during their course work to review course options. Doctoral Mentoring Program: The goal of the Doctoral Mentoring Program DMP is to maximize the student learning experience by developing academic-collegial relationships within the CPAP community, and to assist in professional socialization and development. New students in the doctoral program are assigned to mentoring groups in either Blacksburg or the National Capital Region Alexandria upon entry.

Mentoring groups meet at least three times in each fall and spring semester for a total of six regular meetings per academic year in each program location. As implied above, participation in the mentoring groups carries the same status as participation in an academic course, and course credit is allocated to students upon completion of the mentoring program. Mentoring groups meet both as a general community and in individual sessions with their colleagues and their faculty advisor.

The topical agenda of the community and group sessions covers all aspects of the CPAP program, questions about individual programs of study, individual research interests, and broader topics having to do with intellectual and academic life both during the graduate school experience and afterwards in the career stage. In some instances, such as when students begin taking courses while they are pursuing admission to the program, it may happen that a student will not be eligible to be assigned formally to a Mentoring Group or to attend an advising session for two or even three semesters.

Such students are welcome to attend the DMP as guests. Should they later be admitted to the program, they will then receive DMP credit for their attendance. Students may also fulfill the residency requirement on the Blacksburg campus or in the National Capital via the following alternative plan, which has two components: 1. Residency Capstone Seminar Sequence Capstones A and B This is a special two-semester seminar sequence focused on the research and conceptual development of an academic paper, and the revision and continued development of the paper. The focus of the first seminar Capstone A is an advanced research topic demanding that students engage in intensive and original thought and analysis.

Special colloquia and lecture presentations by various resource persons that follow the formal classroom sessions are also included in this program, and students are expected to attend and participate in them. During the second seminar in the sequence Capstone B , students extensively critique and revise their manuscript from the first seminar, examine 21 early research and developed research, learn about the publishing process, and present their work at the spring High Table conference.

The final capstone requirement is to submit the manuscript for review to a journal. University residency requirements require that National Capital Region students spend some time on the Blacksburg campus. The request should then be presented to the CPAP chair. He or she shall use discretion to decide which, if any, of the CPAP policy making bodies should hear and decide the request.

In all cases, strong and compelling evidence of both the necessity for the individual and minimal impact on the department must be presented. Whenever a graduate student believes that any work has been improperly evaluated, or believes that there has been unfair treatment, it is expected that the student will follow the procedures below in a timely fashion.

The student should take up the questions directly with the faculty member involved. This may be the committee chair, another faculty member, or an instructor responsible for a course. If the matter is not reconciled, the graduate student will be expected to appeal the question to the CPAP chair. If the matter cannot be resolved there, then the chair takes the question to the CPAP core faculty. If the matter is still unresolved, the Director of the School of Public and International Affairs, in consultation with the SPIA Executive Committee and the Dean of the College of Architecture and Urban Studies as appropriate, shall take all reasonable and proper actions to resolve the question at the departmental level.

The student shall be informed in writing of the results no later than one month after the appeal to the Director of the School of Public and International Affairs. The University Appeals Procedure If the aggrieved student believes that their rights were abridged at the program and school levels, the student may file a request for review with the Dean of the Graduate School.

3 Major Differences Between Government and Nonprofit Accounting

A full description of these procedures is found in the Graduate School Policies and Procedures. Faculty should make standards for grading known to students at the beginning of each semester. The CPAP faculty agrees that grades should provide an opportunity to provide feedback on various dimensions of performance in courses. In scheduling their preliminary exams prospectus defense and final exams dissertation defense , Ph. Concentration lectures must be scheduled before December 1 for the fall semester and before May 1 for the spring semester.

No concentration lecture can be scheduled during summer sessions. Letter grades A through F are given for all regular courses. They will have one regular semester to return the GPA to 3. Most incompletes should be finished within one semester. The CPAP faculty or specific Graduate degree committees that may be established offer supervision of the process and must review exceptions to the criteria. Expectations for Faculty Participation on Student Committees: It is the expectation that all faculty serving on advisory, thesis, and dissertation committees will actively participate in the academic advisement of students in the direction of their research programs.

Participation on student committees should be limited in number to ensure that the faculty member is able to fulfill the responsibilities of committee membership. Evaluation of the performance of faculty in this important capacity is the joint responsibility of the CPAP chair and appropriate chairs of graduate degree committees that may be established.

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MPA students may use certificate courses to fulfill elective requirements; one of the local government certificate courses may substitute for one of the required courses either PAPA or PAPA Homeland Security Policy The graduate certificate in homeland security policy 12 credits focuses on domestic security and emergency management issues. Taking four homeland security courses will introduce students to the complexity of the homeland security environment, from analyzing the terrorist threat, to considering questions of hazard mitigation, preparedness, and resilience, to investigating response and recovery strategies.

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This top-rated government accounting suite is suited to the needs of your municipality, city, or town: Account structure designed to produce the reports you need. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Nonprofit Financial Management , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Nonprofit Financial Management.

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