Mocidade e morte (Portuguese Edition)
When applied to people, it means to be exhausted or burned out. An expression comparable to 'I almost thought that A self-referencing expression that would literally mean 'this friend of yours'. Similar to the English expression 'yours truly'. Dazzling, incredible, dizzying. An adjective applicable for anything that leaves you stunned, in a good way,.
National route, one of several road classifications within the Portuguese road network. A word taken from another language and integrated into Portuguese language in its original form.
A town in central Portugal, which became the country's and one of the world's main destinations for Catholic religious tourism and pilgrimage after an alleged series of apparitions of the Virgin Mary in It's the informal way of introducing a favour, "please" or "if you could", in portuguese the polite way is "por favor" but many people use "se faz favor". You will also hear it slurred together like "faxavor", which is slang.
The 17th century and the Baroque
Literally translates to 'Does Everything'. To do what someone wants you to do, to humour someone, to give in to them. Literally, to 'make tourism', i. A Portuguese expression, which borrows, but then misuses the English word 'pressing'.
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It's supposed to mean pressuring someone to do something. Doing odd jobs, one-off paid services, as a way to make some extra cash. Guarantor, someone who guarantees to pay off a debt for someone else if the person fails to do so. Expression used to describe a song or melody that is catchy, or memorable, and easily gets stuck in the head. To stay cool, fresh, as in someone who manages to avoid feeling hot in a warm day.
To be on the house - when a commercial establishment offers something for free. Traditional Portuguese Christmas dessert, consisting of fried dough balls. The individual units of a building in the context of real estate. The same word is used to describe mathematical fractions. Special sandwich containing various meats and topped with melted cheese and sauce.
Bangs or fringe. The term is applicable to both male and female hairstyles. Common term for edible fruits, albeit scientifically inaccurate. In Portuguese, the proper translation for any fruit in general, literal or figurative, is 'fruto' or 'frutos' e. But edible fruits in particular are generally called 'fruta' or 'frutas'. This isn't applied to all fruits - tomatoes and cucumbers, for example, are generally treated as plain vegetables by laypeople. An easy way to tell if a fruit should be called 'fruta' is to think if your first instinct would be to grab it and eat it as is it's probably a 'fruta' or to add it to a salad or cook it it's probably not a 'fruta'.
While the literal translation is "dried fruits", the term actually refers to nuts in general. Dried fruit would be called "fruta desidratada". Galician, an official language in the region of Galicia, in northwestern Spain, right above Portugal. The language is closely related to Portuguese. The Rooster of Barcelos, a symbol of Barcelos due to an ancient tale about a rooster that crows to prove the innocence of a pilgrim about to be executed after being accused of a crime. To make some cash. The literal translation of 'trocos' would be 'change' small coins.
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Calf muscles. The word itself means twins. It's also the word for the Zodiac sign Gemini. A village in the far Noth of Portugal, in the municipality of Viana do Castelo. More than a pseudonym, which is simply a false name used by an author, a heteronym is a full-blown imaginary alternative persona created by a writer. An island located in the Barragem do Castelo do Bode, surrounded by a magnificent landscape.
Whole wheat, whole grain, when applied to food.
Otherwise, the word is used just like its English relative 'integral'. Jealous of something. Note that jealousy in a relationship uses a different word: Ciumento. To go down the drain, down the tubes, down the gutter. Used when something goes wrong and plans are foiled.
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Imposto sobre o Rendimento das Pessoas Singulares - The Portuguese income tax return for individuals. Used to express disbelief and to firmly reject an idea that another person is convinced of. Name of a Portuguese newspaper. The names of most Portuguese TV news programs also start with 'Jornal' e. We are living together. Juntar means get together, unite, and trapinhos means clothes, when people get their clothes and stuff together in the same house.
To add in other contexts it can be to get together, to gather pieces together. A more emphatic or interesting way of describing someone's movements. To get all greasy and dirty. The expression most often applies to eating voraciously a very appreciated meal. It's both the name of a fish and of a traditional Portuguese Christmas egg-based dessert. As a noun, it means a square public open area.
It can also be used as an adjective, meaning wide. Generally, a letter. When applied to music, it means the lyrics of a song or work. To take off. Can be used literally, as in a flight, or figuratively, for example, to describe an evolving career. A village in the far North of Portugal, in the municipality of Barcelos.
Complaints book, which is mandatory for every Portuguese commercial establishment to have. The word can be spelt with either 'oi' or 'ou' in the middle. Both variations are equally correct. Both refer to parts of hair with different colors. Regardless of this, the two terms might end up being used interchangeably.
A popular festival, celebrated on November 11th, during which people eat roasted chestnuts and drink wine around a bonfire. A word usually applied in good nature to people, to mean a number of things depending on context, such as silly, fool, stubborn, crazy, etc. Names of Portuguese gossip magazines called 'revistas cor-de-rosa', in Portuguese , which often have female names. A type of citrus fruit which is used in Portugal to produce marmalade. Any pasta stew dish in general can be called a 'massada', a term that derives from the word 'massa' Portuguese translation of pasta.
The most common types are made with fish and seafood and are named accordingly, e. A Portuguese payment processing app, which allows for instant purchases, money transfers between bank accounts using only the recipient's phone number, virtual credit card creation, among other features. Low-beam headlights. Shift to fifth gear. When used as a slang term, it's the Portuguese equivalent of dude, bro or buddy. A term of endearment which can be used between relatives, lovers and others.
Mostly used by women and takes on a maternal undertone when used by older women towards younger people. A city and municipality in the far Northeast of Portugal, bordering Spain. Mirandese is spoken in the region. Mirandese, the second official language of Portugal, spoken in Northeastern Portugal.
It combines elements of Spanish and Portuguese. Literally, it means kid. When it is used to express size, it means small. The general translation would be 'children' or 'kids'. It may also mean 'offal' meat. Modernism, a cultural and philosophical movement that spanned the late 19th century and the early 20th century.
Mohican, as in the tribe, or mohawk, as in the hairstyle. The hairstyle will often just be called 'crista'.
Brazilian expression which means being in a huge hurry or rush. Describes something deceiving that seems better than it actually is. A variation of the previous saying. A saying that encourages people to help others become independent, instead of doing everything for them. It means to deal with conflicts head on, right as they appear, instead of 'taking them home'. An expression of surprise, disbelief or irony, depending on context. Not getting along with someone, or not coming to an agreement with someone.
Literally 'You're not worth a bucket of squid'. Means someone's worthless. Literally translates to 'I can neither tell you nor say it to you'. An expression that conveys, for example, that something is very difficult to describe or shouldn't be described. Even if it were, at least. Sometimes, also used in the negative sense of 'not even if Examples 'Ele queria um carro, nem que fosse velho. Portuguese expression equivalent to the English expressions 'ultimately', 'at the end of the day' or 'in the end'.
It can describe a qualifying phase for a sports competition or a transition point between different rounds or stages, even if more advanced. Air, ambience ii.
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A "vibe" or "appearance", ex: ar triste a sad look. An old neighbourhood in downtown Lisbon, known as one of the centers of the city's nightlife. An immersion bath, in a tub, as opposed to a shower 'duche', in Portuguese. A typical Portuguese soup, with potato, kale, and other optional, but common, ingredients, such as chorizo. Literally, 'Hey boss'. Used casually between adults, mostly men, whether or not they're actual bosses.
A very large and popular shopping centre in the outskirts of Lisbon Benfica. A French term commonly used in Portugal, which refers to the starters or appetizers served before the main dishes. A casual and friendly way of describing someone who is exceptionally good at something, like a pro. Applicable in several different contexts, like sports, school subjects, etc. As a slang term, it's used as an interjection. It's only mildly rude and used by people of all ages. The literal meaning of the word is 'fire'. A type of coffee in Portugal, served in a tall glass witth more milk than coffee.
Synonyms of 'brother' and 'sister'. Very casual, familiar - only appropriate for people with close relationships. Literally, a single sock. Metaphorically, a nest egg money that is saved for the future. This expression probably originated from an old habit of keeping money in old socks. The crew, the guys, the girls It can be used casually to refer to any group of people.
Octopus 'lagareiro' style. Lagareiro is the name given to someone who works on an olive oil mill. It's referenced in the name of this dish because of the generous amounts of olive oil included in the recipe. On the other hand, a type of wet-cured ham, made of a processed mixture of pork cuts which is then sliced, is called fiambre.
Directly, the author defines that for the proper understanding of this problem for the proposed purpose, "this question does not concern at all the linguistic peculiarities of poetic language as some are inclined to reinterpret this problem , but concerns the significance of the language of linguistics in its entirety as material for poetry, and this problem is purely aesthetic in character". This is because "the extra-aesthetic nature of the material in distinction to content does not enter into the aesthetic object" BAKHTIN, , pp. The material composes the aesthetic object but is not the object; it is not to be taken for the object: "The author-artist's creative consciousness is never coincident with language consciousness: language consciousness is no more than a constituent, a material that is totally governed by the purely artistic task" BAKHTIN, a , p.
The linguistic form remains outside the aesthetic object, unlike its "axiological significance," which actually penetrates it: "The significance of material in artistic creation is defined: while it does not enter into the aesthetic object in its material, extra-aesthetic determinateness, it is indispensable for the construction of the aesthetic object as a technical element" BAKHTIN, , p. Form cannot be understood independently of content, but neither can it be independent of the nature of the material used and the devices determined by the latter.
Form is conditioned by the given content, on the one hand, and, on the other, by the particular nature of the material and the methods of working that material. A purely material artistic task would constitute a technical experiment. An artistic device cannot be solely a device of working the verbal material words as a linguistic datum ; it must be first and foremost a device of working a particular content, except that it must do so by means of a particular material BAKHTIN, , p.
For Bakhtin "artistic form is the form of content, but a form which is realized entirely in the material - is attached to the material. This is achieved by the "primary function of the form," the "isolation," something similar to the "unfamiliarity" conceptualized by the Russian formalists.
The inseparability between content and form is so strong that the author states that content is a "moment of form" and then explains that "the form relativizes content completely; this is the sense of the assertion which makes content a moment of form" BAKHTIN, , p. The way these interrelations are established also deserve Bakhtin's special attention.
He distinguishes the compositional form from the architectonic form. The latter corresponds to the " aesthetic object in its purely artistic distinctiveness " and the first as "completely apart from the aesthetic object" BAKHTIN, , p. The compositional forms, organizing the material, have a teleological, implemental character, a "restless" character, as it were, and they are subject to a purely technical evaluation: to what extent have they adequately fulfilled their architectonic task?
The architectonic form determines the choice of the compositional form. Thus, the form of tragedy a form of the event, and to some extent that of a person-the tragic character selects the appropriate compositional form - the dramatic form BAKHTIN, , p. The understanding of the previous concepts is fundamental to the comprehension of authorship and style in Bakhtin. For him, the artistic creation corresponds to a form of organization of the fictional world in which the author participates from outside. This is because the artistic event depends on the existence of the relationship between the "I" and the "other," because only then is it possible to make " any actual valuation" BAKHTIN, , p.
The aesthetic act gives birth to being on a new axiological plane of the world: a new human being is born and a new axiological context-a new plane of thinking about the human world. The author must be situated on the boundary of the world he is bringing into being as the active creator of this world, for his intrusion into that world destroys its aesthetic stability BAKHTIN, , p.
In a later work, the relationship of the author with the work is expressed directly: "The aesthetic object is a creation that includes its creator within itself" BAKHTIN, , p. Artistic style works not with words, but with constituent features of the world, with the values of the world and of life; it could be defined as the sum total of the devices for giving form to and consummating a human being and his world.
And it is this style that also determines the relationship to the given material words , whose nature we must know of course in order to be able to understand that relationship BAKHTIN, , p. The style does not appear only in specific parts of the work, but it also relates to the wholeness of its organization, "a correct formulation of the problem of the style one of the most important problems of aesthetics , is impossible without a rigorous distinction of architectonic and compositional forms" BAKHTIN, , p.
The artwork consists of technical and aesthetic traces: these are only subject to change through the authorship dimension; those are only possibly altered considering a technical comprehension of the composition of the work. To avoid misunderstanding, we shall provide here an exact definition of technique in art: by the technical moment in art, we mean everything that is absolutely necessary for the creation of a work of art in its natural-scientific or linguistic determinateness this includes the entire makeup of a finished work of art as a thing , but that does not enter immediately into the aesthetic object - is not a component of the artistic whole.
Technical moments are factors of the artistic impression, but they are not aesthetically valid components of the content of that impression, i. The elements of the work that constitute the aesthetic object 54 necessarily include the authorship dimension, the position from which the content is expressed. This content may only be supplemented, modified, reworked by the author from the point of view of the creation and the reader from the point of view of interpretation , never by the proofreader.
However, in order to define which technical interventions are to be made in the literary work that they are reviewing, the proofreader must understand the immanent logic of creation not to intervene in it, but to qualify its intervention in the technical norm. It is precisely in the world from which the artist creates that the proofreader cannot intervene directly. In other words: "[t]he fundamental problem is to determine first of all the artistic task and its actual context, i. Bakhtin defines style as the " unity of two kinds of devices: the devices of giving form to and consummating the hero and his world, and the devices determined by the former, the devices of working and adapting immanently overcoming the material" BAKHTIN, , pp.
He also proposes, given this perspective, three questions: "What is the relationship that obtains between style and the author as an individuality? What is the relationship of style to content, i. What significance does tradition have in the value-context of the author-contemplator? Style is necessarily related to tradition; hence, the passage of the artistic style to the verbal style is thus understood by Bakhtin, "the great style encompasses all domains of art or it does not exist at all. To understand the author in the historical world of his time, to understand his place in a social collective, his class position" BAKHTIN, , p.
Thus, precisely due to the fact that the technical work to be done later in the work cannot change the world, the historical universe, the experiences, the author's sense of life, this work cannot also interfere with the authorship, the way the architectonic form is organized, the artistic style, the form to some extent or the content of the work, the aesthetic object, in short, something very special particularly to the literary text, as discussed below.
The literary text can be understood as a product of the aesthetic work, of the human desire to communicate content through verbal language formally crafted, which falls directly on its own linguistic structure, the field of work of the proofreader. Thus, it can be said that the technical work on the literary text can never interfere directly with the content of the work of art, that is, in the aesthetic object; and all the elements of the work that necessarily form such an object must be preserved. The material of the work of art, on the other hand, can be the object of technical work of the other in this case, the proofreader , as "it is not in the world of language that the poet creates; language is something he merely uses" BAKHTIN, , p.
In literary proofreading, the role of the professional consists in understanding the axiological and creative context not to intervene in it, but to perceive the scope of possibilities of use of the material and the organization of the architectonic form. However, it is of utmost importance for the technical work to be successful that the relation established between this material and the aesthetic object, and the "extraverbal architectonic events" BAKHTIN, , p.
Clearly, not to interfere with the architecture of the work, but to acquire the ability to discern the possibilities of use of the material proposed by the aesthetic object. The reading capacity of the literary text must be developed to the point of enabling the perception of what, in a certain work, belongs or not to their linguistic possibilities. This prevents one from considering a "flaw" something that relates to the linguistic resources pertinent to that creation.
Imagine, for example, if the proofreader of Saramago now not the character of the work, but the professional who worked on his final text decided to punctuate the dialogues of The History of the Siege of Lisbon the traditional way, with dashes and new paragraphs. The tasks of the proofreader of a literary text do not include, therefore, interference in the form of the work in its whole. The form is connected on the one hand to the content, and on the other to the material. This is why the study of the form can follow two paths, as mentioned above, "from within the pure aesthetic object, as architectonic form, axiologically directed toward content" or "from within the compositional material whole of the work - this is the study of the technique of form" BAKHTIN, , p.
Hence, compositional changes may even be suggested, provided they do not interfere with the content, the aesthetic object; this means, in Bakhtinian terms, not to interfere with the architectonic form. Of what does the world in which we live, act, and create consist?
Of matter and psyche? And of what does the work of art consist? Of words, sentences, chapters, and perhaps of pages and paper? In the artist's axiological context of active creation, all these constituents are secondary, and by no means primary: it is not these constituents that axiologically determine the artist's creative context, but, rather, they are themselves determined by that context BAKHTIN, , p. The proofreading, therefore, can only look into the elements that are determined by the axiological context by the author's worldview, and not directly into such worldview.
A more concrete example to try to clarify the Bakhtinian propositions is given by Umberto Eco. The Italian author works the notion of "cosmological fact," which would correspond to "building a world" that is necessary for those who want to "tell. In the s the Jesuits had also gained control of higher education. This taste for the construction of literary enigmas , puzzles, labyrinths, and visual designs, all presented in an esoteric , Latinate style, led to cabalistic and occult exercises. Yet Spanish influence continued after Portugal regained its independence: use of Spanish was common, and the Portuguese court preferred Italian opera, French plays, and Spanish operettas, to the detriment of local drama and acting.
The discovery of gold and diamonds in Brazil at Minas Gerais underwrote and prolonged the wealth of Baroque art in Portugal. The foremost literary figure of the age was Francisco Manuel de Melo , whose works became classics of both Spanish and Portuguese literature. He was more successful in doing so in prose than in verse. Most lyricists of the period remained steeped in Gongorism. Epic poets continued to be active, but few of their productions were more than rhymed chronicles.
The struggle for the social and intellectual emancipation of women appears in late Baroque literature produced in Portuguese convents, where some nuns rejected the restrictions placed on them. The Love Letters of a Portuguese Nun introduced a literary mystery that would enchant readers for centuries. These five short letters, purportedly translated into French from lost originals, were presented as love letters; they were later attributed to Mariana Alcoforado , a Portuguese nun who was abandoned at a convent in Beja by her lover, Noel Bouton de Chamilly, a French army officer stationed in Portugal in the s.
Although the letters are now thought to be the work of their supposed translator—the French lawyer and diplomat Gabriel-Joseph de Lavergne, vicomte de Guilleragues —and have been subsumed into French literature , they continue to be admired for their unsurpassable psychoanalysis of passion as well as for their perceived Peninsular consciousness. Scholars still debate the question of their authenticity and authorship, while poets, playwrights, and novelists dramatize their intense words of faith, doubt, and despair. Literary culture of the 18th century in Portugal, as in Spain, showed the influence of French classicism and of the Enlightenment ; the ideas of the latter would be mobilized as a challenge to the aristocracy.
Men of liberal ideas traveled to France and England; with their subsequent writings they set an example that gave rise to Enlightenment-inspired reforms, particularly in education and science, that invaded every other branch of letters. The Royal Academy of Sciences, founded in , initiated research into the study of Portuguese literary history. The bucolic verse of Domingos dos Reis Quita signified a return to the native Portuguese tradition of two centuries earlier. Early in the 18th century, popular authors attempted a revival of the drama in Lisbon. With the arrival of Romanticism in Portugal, the 19th century witnessed a general renewal of Portuguese letters.
Jaime , In Os simples he turned to the portrayal of peasant life, and this work constituted his finest poetry. Camilo Pessanha —who lived and wrote in the Portuguese colony of Macau, in China—bridged the 19th and 20th centuries: he carried Symbolist verse to a point at which its musicality and images became fragmented and dispersed. Moraes was a diplomat who spent the final 30 years of his life in Japan, where he adopted the culture, converted to Buddhism, and, beginning in the s, published a series of books describing Japanese culture to the West.
Garrett, seeking to reinvigorate drama, found he had to create anew the plays, actors, and audience of Portuguese theatre despite its revival during the 18th century.